Steam separators are devices used to remove water droplets from the system in order to improve the quality of steam obtained from the steam boiler. To explain in more detail, it is not possible to obtain 100% dry steam in steam boilers and during the transport of steam. Water droplets from the boiler surfaces can be carried to the pipeline. Due to turbulence and fluctuations, water droplets and steam will be dragged into the system and a mixture of water droplets and steam will form in the pipelines. At the same time, water droplets will form due to condensation in the steam due to heat losses from pipelines.
When the water fed to the steam boiler comes into contact with the steam, water up to 5% of the mass will be formed. Since 95% of the steam generated in the steam boiler contains steam and 5% water, the dryness degree of the steam obtained from the boiler will be 95%. This situation is indicated by X in the literature and is called the dryness factor. For this reason, steam separators are used and efficiency is increased in this way.
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What are the Harms of Wet Steam?
1. Corrosion and Calcification
2. Ram Strike
3. Reduction in heat transfer
4. Increase in condensate load
5. Deformation in used fixtures
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What are the Types of Steam Separators?
Divider Plate and (Wing Type) or (Baffle) Steam Separator
This model consists of a series of separator plates. Its working principle is based on the principle of a series of deflections of the flow. As the wet steam travels between the plates, the water droplets are heavier than the steam and remain on the plates. Since the velocity of the flow will decrease during the transition between the plates, the kinetic energy of the water will reduce the movement of the water droplets, and the water will be collected at the bottom of the separator as the steam continues on its path. Finned steam separators are also available in models that can be mounted horizontally.
Cyclone (Cyclonic or Centrifugal) Type Steam Separator
This model uses a series of blades to generate high cyclonic velocity. As the steam passes through the blades at high speed, the water droplets hit the walls of the separator and collect at the bottom of the separator.
Vortex Type Steam Separator
In this model, a blockage is created in the vapor path by a filter-like pad. Small water molecules accumulated in this pad tend to combine with each other, and when they reach a size that cannot be carried by steam, they begin to gather under the separator.
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What are the Usage Areas of Steam Separator?
- Rubber Vulcanizing machines
- Steam Boilers
How Should Steam Separators Be Installed?
Steam separator connections are designed as threaded and flanged connections. Steam separators should be installed close to the steam source as long as the system allows, in order to avoid the negative effects of wet steam in the line and in the process. The aim is to keep the water entrained by steam at the source out of the system at the beginning of the system, thus eliminating water hammer, calcification and deformation of the armatures.
Steam separators should be installed vertically in horizontal pipelines. A float trap should be installed on the condensate discharge port of the steam separator. It should be noted that the level of the trap inlet port is below the discharge port level of the piping line steam separator, which consists of the shut-off valves, swing check valve and strainer filter required for installation.